IoT Dictionary

This glossary includes key terms of the IoT (Internet of Things) & M2M (machine-to-machine) communications industry, including wireless and cellular technologies spanning many different markets. It is updated to present current terminology and usage. Your participation and feedback are most welcome—to submit comments, new entries, or suggestions, contact us today.

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are 20 names in this directory beginning with the letter E.
E-Health
Or eHealth, telehealth, telemedicine, and related to mHealth. This is the support of medical processes and applications through information and computer technologies. It can include the gathering and communication of data as well as automated responses of certain devices and processes.
EAN
European Article Number. This is used to mark and identify products. Since 2009, it is also called GTIN (Global Trade Item Number). The number is usually found beneath barcodes and consists of up to 13 digits (EAN 13 barcode).
ECU
Electronic Control Unit.
EDGE
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution.
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
Also known as a node, an Electronic Control Unit is a device, such as a sensor or actuator, that is connected to other devices via a CAN Bus. A vehicle can contain dozens of ECUs for functions such as mirror adjustment, window power, airbags, cruise control, entertainment, and, most significantly, engine control. To form a CAN, two or more ECUs are needed.
Embedded Device Hacking
The exploiting of vulnerabilities in embedded software to gain control of the device.
Embedded Firmware
The flash memory chip that stores specialized software running in a chip in an embedded device to control its functions.
Embedded Software
Specialized programming in a chip or on firmware in an embedded device to control its functions.
Embedded System Security
The reduction of vulnerabilities and protection against threats in software running on embedded devices.
Embrace, Extend, and Extinguish
A strategy associated with Microsoft to defeat open standards with proprietary extensions. Many IoT projects are open source, so this strategy would be anathema to open development.
EMD
Enterprise Mobile Duress.
EMI Protocol
An extension to the UCP (Universal Computer Protocol). It’s used to connect to Short Message Service Centers which store, transform, and send short messages.
Energy-Harvesting Technologies
Technologies which use small amounts of energy from close proximity to power small wireless devices. Applications can be found in wireless sensor networks or wearable tech. Energy sources are, among others, sun, wind, or kinetic energy.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
This is an enhancement made to 2G GSM networks to improve data transfer speeds and provides downlink speeds of up to 1 Mbit/s and uplink speeds of up to 400 kbit/s. It builds on available GSM or GPRS standards and is thus easily integrated into the existing network.
Enterprise Mobile Duress (EMD)
Systems designed to detect personnel emergencies within large facilities, such as hospitals or campuses, where determining the physical location of persons in distress is a critical issue. EMD systems are a robust extension of a Personal Emergency Response System (PERS) into the enterprise, focusing on the protection of people from emergency incidents such as violence.
EPCglobal
A nonprofit organization founded by GS1 (former EAN International) and GS1 US (former UCC). It serves to spread, improve, and standardize the Radio Frequency Identification (RFDI) technology and to support communication of gathered data through the Internet.
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge. This discharge can occur if two electrical objects with different electrical charge come in contact with each other. The difference in charge is often due to friction. Sometimes, the short process is accompanied by sparks, as can be seen with lightning. ESD can lead to severe damage to electrical devices (such as generators).
ESN
Electronic Serial Number (in CDMA). Replaced by the MEID.
EtherCAT
A fieldbus system developed by Beckhoff, which allows for real-time Ethernet. It helps to achieve short data update times, accurate synchronization, and low hardware costs, so it can be used specifically for automated or control systems. CAT stands for Controller and Automation Technology.
EV-DO
Enhanced Voice-Data Only (also Enhanced Voice-Data Optimized).